Learn how the earliest relationships with caregivers can promote healthy brain development, how young children build social and emotional skills, and ways you can support language and literacy development starting from birth.
Every child deserves an equal opportunity to lead a healthy and fulfilling life, and with the right kind of early intervention, there is every opportunity for secure relationships to be developed.
The period between pregnancy and 3 years is increasingly seen as a critical period in shaping children’s life chances, based on evidence of brain formation, communication and language development, and the impact of relationships formed during this period on mental health.
The first 1001 days from conception to age two
This is a period of rapid growth. During this time, babies’ growing brains are shaped by their experiences, particularly the interactions that they have with their parents and other caregivers. What happens during this time lays the foundations for future development.
Therefore, investing in the first 1001 days is a wonderful way to give children the best start in life and to invest in their future. Healthy development in the first 1001 days is linked to improved mental and physical health, reductions in risk and antisocial behaviour, and achievement at school and beyond.
The importance of play
Play underpins learning and all aspects of children’s development. Through play, children develop language skills, their emotions and creativity, social and intellectual skills. For most children their play is natural and spontaneous, although some children may need extra help from adults. Play takes place indoors and outdoors and it is in these different environments that children explore and discover their immediate world. It is here they practice new ideas and skills, they take risks, show imagination and solve problems on their own or with others. The role that adults have is crucial, adults are to provide time and space and appropriate resources; they value play and provide safe but challenging environments that support and extend learning and development.
Learning through play: Birth to three
For young babies play begins in their first encounter in the womb with their mother’s hand touching the place where they have just kicked her stomach or when she sings or talks to them. A mother’s voice before the baby’s birth and her face, touch and gestures when the baby is born all play a part in creating emotional warmth and interaction which lead to play and learning for babies.
Babies and young children love to play with anything from their fingers and toes, to their toys, as well as with sounds and with adults and children. When young children play they learn at the same time, so play is a very important way for children to learn.
When babies play, their whole bodies are involved in reaching, grasping, rolling and touching things. As they become more mobile and they gain control over their bodies babies enjoy putting things together such as piling blocks on top of one another or banging balls together, or filling and emptying containers.
Two-year old’s love to pretend, basing their play on imitating things they have seen you, or other people do, like vacuuming, talking on the telephone or playing a trumpet. When they play like this they don’t always need the real thing, as they will make do with anything that they can adapt to their pretend play. By the time they are moving towards their third birthday children begin to play with others more, and increasingly enjoy playing with other children.
Babies and young children also enjoy looking at books, listening to stories and rhymes and joining in with songs. As they hear and join in with stories, songs and rhymes and look at books, young children become familiar with different sounds and words, and they begin to anticipate events.
Early development and well-being
The Early Years Foundation Stage Statutory framework, 2021 (EYFS)
The EYFS sets the standards that all early years providers must meet to ensure that children learn and develop well and are kept healthy and safe. It promotes teaching and learning to ensure children’s ‘school readiness’ and gives children the broad range of knowledge and skills that provide the right foundation for good future progress through school and life.
Other guidance is provided at www.foundationyears.org.uk.
Children develop quickly in the early years, and early years practitioners aim to do all they can to help children have the best possible start in life. Children have a right, spelled out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to provision which enables them to develop their personalities, talents and abilities irrespective of ethnicity, culture or religion, home language, family background, learning difficulties, disabilities or gender. Development Matters guidance helps adults to understand and support each individual child’s development pathway.
- Are you listening to me? booklet (pdf format, 2.2Mb)
- ’A Unique Me’ observation prompt sheet
- Brain development
- Health and development two-year-old reviews
In Oxfordshire, the two assessments at age 2 are complementary and equally important. They provide parents with a more complete picture of their child’s development while conveying the importance of early identification of needs and provision of support to ensure children’s health and good level of development
- 101 outside play ideas (pdf format, 1.4Mb)
- Entitlement for 2-year olds
Learning and development
- Physical development in the Early Years
- 0-5 infographic
- During the first 3 years of life
- Move with me newborn -6months
- Move with me 6-12 months
- Move with me 2-3 years of life
- Move with me 3-4 years of life
- Physical development audit
- Physical skills for writing
- Improving the Home Learning Environment
Personal social and emotional development (PSED)
- Progress check age 2 template letter
- Progress check at 2
- Birth to Three hygiene resource
- Health and development two year old reviews
- Dr. Ferre Laevers’ scales for emotional well-being
- Oxfordshire Health visitors website
Leadership and management
- Tracking tool
- Transition Pack
- Supervision – proforma
- OSCB - https://www.oscb.org.uk/practitioners-volunteers/
- LCSS - https://www.oscb.org.uk/practitioners-volunteers/locality-and-community-support-service-early-help/